computational sociology 643

that sociology and related social sciences must examine the concrete sociocultural conditions that prevail and chart changes as they occur, recognizing that some apparently small but qualitatively different changes may cascade over time to have decisive impacts. INDUCTIVE THEORY Since the 1960s, sociologists have been using computers to test theories empirically, chiefly through statistical analysis … Read more computational sociology 643

642 computational sociology

they have unusually charismatic leaders or because they serve the status needs of deprived social classes and disadvantaged minorities. Bainbridge experimented with a set of agent based computer simulations that ignored these factors and simply modeled the spread of com peting movements in a social network, follow ing three rules: (1) an individual will convert … Read more 642 computational sociology

computational sociology 641

STUDIES IN COMPUTATIONAL SOCIOLOGY Axelrods research assumed that individuals have the opportunity to interact repeatedly, and thus to learn how their potential exchange partners habitually behave. Macy and Skvoretz (1998) explored the emergence of cooperation in a population of strangers who interact at random but with three behavioral options: (1) cooperate give in hopes of … Read more computational sociology 641

640 computational sociology

become a major approach in all areas of social research. THEORY CONSTRUCTION In The Nature of Social Science (1967) and Social Behavior (1974), George Homans argued sociological theories should be formalized, much in the manner of classical Greek logic and geometry, as hierarchical structures of pro positions beginning with axioms and precise definitions of terms. … Read more 640 computational sociology

computational sociology 639

western societies, in which power and privilege are usually dispersed unevenly in the benefit of heterosexuals. Restricting civil marriage to het erosexuals, for example, provides that group of people with significant insurance, taxation, and many other economic and social privileges that are denied to gay and lesbian couples. Rich goes on to argue that validation … Read more computational sociology 639

638 compulsory heterosexuality

labor market rich in construction jobs may attract a greater than average share of men. At the heart of urban sociology is the ques tion: what are the consequences of urban life? According to compositional theorists, there are no negative consequences of living in dense, urban environments. Social networks are alive and well in cities, … Read more 638 compulsory heterosexuality

compositional theory of urbanism 637

Villagers, Gans (1962a) presents a picture of organized, cohesive ethnic communities in Bos ton. In her work The Urban Neighborhood, Kel ler (1968) concludes that urban neighboring exists, but the strength of neighborhood ties varies by the composition of the neighborhood, for example by social class or family structure. Others also demonstrate across various urban … Read more compositional theory of urbanism 637

636 compositional theory of urbanism

Sawyer, R. K. (2006) Social Emergence: Societies as Complex Systems. Cambridge University Press, New York. Thrift, N. (1999) The Place of Complexity. Theory, Culture, and Society 16: 31 69. Waldrop, M. M. (1992) Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. Simon & Schuster, New York. compositional theory of urbanism Jennifer Schwartz … Read more 636 compositional theory of urbanism

complexity and emergence 635

Philosophers of science began debating such properties early in the twentieth century. Social scientists have applied widely different defini tions of emergence, resulting in some concep tual confusion. Complex systems researchers have found that the emergent higher level may have auton omous laws and properties that cannot be easily reduced to lower level, more basic … Read more complexity and emergence 635

634 complexity and emergence

individual in the system? Such questions have long been central in sociology. Complexity theory has the potential to pro vide several new insights into these central sociological questions. Beginning in the mid 1990s, several scientific developments con verged to create a qualitatively more advanced approach to complex systems, and complexity theory began to influence a … Read more 634 complexity and emergence