conflict theory 663

social class is the source of conflict in all socie ties above the level of primitive egalitarian communities. Class conflict between masters and slaves or landlords and peasants, for exam ple pervades history and is the engine of historical change. Marxists have focused most of their attention, though, on the class structure of modern capitalist … Read more conflict theory 663

662 conflict theory

no single theory provides a generally accepted and comprehensive explanation for the com plexity of ethnic group formation or the persis tence of racial conflict in contemporary society. As a result of this analytical discord, it is hardly surprising that the proposed solutions to racial and ethnic conflict are equally diverse. Some see these divisions … Read more 662 conflict theory

conflict (racial/ethnic) 661

racial conflict in the modern world. Much of the research on ethnicity and racial divisions has shifted toward trying to understand the processes of ethnogenesis, the construction and perpetuation of ethnic boundaries, and the impact of forces like globalization and transnationalism on racial and ethnic conflict. While traditional patterns of international migration continue to play … Read more conflict (racial/ethnic) 661

660 conflict (racial/ethnic)

sociological studies of race relations at the turn of the century were a notable exception, found his works largely ignored during his lifetime. It was only in the second half of the twentieth century that the catastrophic results of fascism and the expansion of studies of racism, apart heid, and colonialism brought racial and ethnic … Read more 660 conflict (racial/ethnic)

conflict (racial/ethnic) 659

SE about a mean that is typically about half the total width of the 95 percent CI for the same data. It is unfortunate that the same gra phic is used with two such different meanings, and every figure showing error bars must state clearly what they represent. In Figure 2 the two 95 percent … Read more conflict (racial/ethnic) 659

658 confidence intervals

Figure 2 Means and 95 percent CIs for two groups of respondents, each tested on four occasions. Group is a between-subjects factor, and the CIs shown may be used to assess a between-groups comparison, such as Group 1 vs. Group 2, at time T1. Time of testing, however, is a repeated measure, and the CIs … Read more 658 confidence intervals

confidence intervals 657

Figure 1 Means and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) for 20 independent samples from a population with mean m 53, showing sample-to-sample variation. The intervals vary in width because each is based on the standard deviation of that sample. In the long run, 95 percent of CIs are expected to include m. Here, two CIs … Read more confidence intervals 657

656 confidence intervals

confidence intervals Geoff Cumming A confidence interval (CI) is an interval estimate of a population parameter. It is a range of values, calculated from data, that is likely to include the true value of the population para meter. When a newspaper reports support for the government is 43 percent, in a poll with an error … Read more 656 confidence intervals

Comte, Auguste (17981857) 655

focus on universal laws of order and change. But if Comte had exceeded the permissible degree of comparison and generalization in social study, it remained unclear what degree of lawful generalizing was possible in social science. A great late nineteenth century German discus sion ensued. That discussion created the aca demic environment in which Georg … Read more Comte, Auguste (17981857) 655

654 Comte, Auguste (17981857)

use of data from diverse societies as if they represented data from a single society at various stages of development is tautological only if his dynamic theory is correct is using data from non western societies to describe features of early periods of European ones justified. Comtes exclusive reliance on European illus trations and period … Read more 654 Comte, Auguste (17981857)