intergenerational mobility: methods of analysis 2375

Table 2 A mobility table (percentages)
Destination

Origin

(1)

(2)

(3)

Total

(1)

9.5

4.8

1.2

15.5
(2)

14.6

33.3

12.0

59.9
(3)

4.3

12.3

8.0

24.6
Total

28.4

50.4

21.2

100.0

(2) to (3) in total 18.0 percent. It is clear from
these results that upward mobility is more typi
cal for the last part of the twentieth century
than downward mobility.

Outflow and Inflow Percentages

Using outflow and inflow percentages, one can
answer the question of where people in a cer
tain class are going and where they come from.
Outflow percentages are defined as fij=fi and
give the conditional distribution of destinations
for each origin. They are used to answer the
question of how likely it is that people from a
certain origin will go to the different destina
tions. On the other hand, inflow percentages
are defined as fij=fj and answer the question of
which origins members are distributed from.
Outflow and inflow percentages are presented
in Tables 3a and 3b.
From the inflow percentages (Table 3b), we
can conclude that origin matters. The origin
distributions for the different classes differ,
e.g., 87.3 percent of farmers are recruited from

Table 3a Outflow percentages
Destination

Origin I II III IVab IVc V VI VIIa VIIb Total
I II 61.3 9.0 5.8 0.7 15.5 7.1 0.7 100.0
III 40.0 13.9 6.2 1.5 24.6 12.3 1.5 100.0
IVab 30.8 9.9 19.8 1.1 23.1 14.3 1.1 100.0
IVc 13.2 4.7 5.3 29.0 21.1 21.1 5.8 100.0
V VI 26.5 8.3 6.3 0.4 40.3 17.4 0.8 100.0
VIIa 19.7 8.3 5.7 1.0 36.3 27.5 1.6 100.0
VIIb 9.4 5.7 3.8 3.8 32.1 30.2 15.1 100.0
Total 28.4 8.1 7.0 6.3 29.0 18.5 2.7 100.0

Table 3b Inflow percentages
Destination
Origin I II III IVab IVc V VI VIIa VIIb Total
I II 33.5 17.3 12.9 1.6 8.3 6.0 3.7 15.5
III 9.2 11.1 5.7 1.6 5.5 4.3 3.7 6.5
IVab 9.9 11.1 25.7 1.6 7.2 7.0 3.7 9.1
IVc 8.8 11.1 14.3 87.3 13.8 21.6 40.7 19.0
V VI 23.6 25.9 22.9 1.6 35.2 23.8 7.4 25.3
VIIa 13.4 19.8 15.7 3.2 24.1 28.7 11.1 19.3
VIIb 1.8 3.7 2.9 3.2 5.9 8.7 29.6 5.3
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0