industrial revolution 2293

storage, auditing, manipulation, and broadcast
of information globally. Through intervention
into these communicative spaces visibility is
greatly enhanced, allowing for the auditing of
the performance of individuals and institutions
(Hogan & Greene 2002). The retention of mem
ories and traditions that hitherto had so easily
been broken or lost is also placed within grasp as
never before. This drive to innovation can chal
lenge established power relations within trade
unions but can also be internalized within labor
institutions by the adoption of servicing and
organizing facilities which specifically address
the need to operate outside of the disciplinary
constraints of hostile workplaces and which
recognize that the captured market of the occu
pationally concentrated community is no more
(Hogan & Nolan 2005).

SEE ALSO: Democracy and Organizations;
Human Resource Management; Institutional
Theory, New; Internet; Labor/Labor Power;
Labor Movement; Labor Process; Laborism;
Unions

REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED
READINGS

Allen, V. L. (1971) The Sociology of Industrial Rela
tions. Longman, London.
Carter, C., Clegg, S., Hogan, J., & Kornberger, M.
(2003) The Polyphonic Spree: The Case of the
Liverpool Dockers. Industrial Relations Journal 34
(September): 290 304.
Clegg, H. A. (1964) Restrictive Practices, Socialist
Commentary. Cited in: Productivity Bargaining
and Restrictive Labour Practices. Research Paper
4. Royal Commission on Trade Unions and
Employers Associations. HMSO, London, 1968.
Crossley, J. R. (1968) The Donovan Report: A Case
Study in the Poverty of Historicism. British Jour
nal of Industrial Relations 6(3): 296 302.
Dunlop, J. (1958) Industrial Relations Systems. South-
ern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and
Edwardsville.
Engels, F. (1993) The Condition of the Working Class
in England. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Freeman, R. B. & Medoff, J. L. (1984) What Do
Unions Do? Basic Books, New York.
Hogan, J. & Greene, A. M. (2002) E-collectivism:
On-Line Action and On-Line Mobilization. In:
Holmes, L., Hosking, D. M., & Grieco, M. (Eds.),
Organizing in the Information Age: Distributed
Technology, Distributed Leadership, Distributed Iden
tity, Distributed Discourse. Ashgate, Aldershot.
Hogan, J. & Grieco, M. (2000) Trade Unions On
Line: Technology, Transparency, and Bargaining
Power. In: Donnelly, M. & Roberts, S. (Eds.),
Futures: Proceedings of the Second Scottish Trade
Union Research Network Conference. Scottish
Trades Union Congress, Paisley, Scotland.
Hogan, J. & Nolan, P. (2005) Foreword. In: Grieco,
M., Hogan, J., & Martinez-Lucio, M. (Eds.), The
Globalization of Labour: Counter Coordination and
Unionism on the Internet. Critical Perspectives on
International Business 1(2/3).
Kerr, C., Dunlop, J., Harbison, F. H., & Myers, C.
(1960) Industrialism and Industrial Man. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Nolan, P. (1994) Labour Market Institutions, Indus-
trial Restructuring, and Unemployment in Europe.
In: Grieve-Smith, J. & Michie, J. (Eds.), Unem
ployment in Europe: Policies for Growth. Academic
Press, London, pp. 61 71.
Nolan, P. (1996) Industrial Relations and Perfor-
mance Since 1945. In: Beardwell, I (Ed.), Contem
porary Industrial Relations: Critical Essays. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Nolan, P. (2004) Shaping the Future: The Political
Economy of Work and Employment. Industrial
Relations Journal 35 (September): 378 87.
Nolan, P. & ODonnell, K. A. (2003) Industrial
Relations, Human Resource Management, and
Performance. In: Edwards, P. K. (Ed.), Industrial
Relations: Theory and Practice. Blackwell, Oxford,
pp. 489 512.
Ozanne, R. (1968) Wages in Theory and Practice.
University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
Webb, S. & Webb, B. (1894) A History of Trade
Unionism. Longman, London.
Webb, S. & Webb, B. (1920) Industrial Democracy.
Longman, Green, London.

industrial revolution

Francois Nielsen

The Industrial Revolution (IR) is the rapid
increase in the use of machines powered by inan
imate forms of energy (such as waterfalls, steam
engines powered by coal, or electricity) that
began in England in the later part of the eight
eenth century. There are two perspectives on
the scope of the subject. The IR may be viewed
both as (1) a well defined historical episode,
delimited in time and space, or (2) a much
broader phase of sociocultural evolution that is