industrial revolution 2293

storage, auditing, manipulation, and broadcast
of information globally. Through intervention
into these communicative spaces visibility is
greatly enhanced, allowing for the auditing of
the performance of individuals and institutions
(Hogan & Greene 2002). The retention of mem
ories and traditions that hitherto had so easily
been broken or lost is also placed within grasp as
never before. This drive to innovation can chal
lenge established power relations within trade
unions but can also be internalized within labor
institutions by the adoption of servicing and
organizing facilities which specifically address
the need to operate outside of the disciplinary
constraints of hostile workplaces and which
recognize that the captured market of the occu
pationally concentrated community is no more
(Hogan & Nolan 2005).

SEE ALSO: Democracy and Organizations;
Human Resource Management; Institutional
Theory, New; Internet; Labor/Labor Power;
Labor Movement; Labor Process; Laborism;


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industrial revolution

Francois Nielsen

The Industrial Revolution (IR) is the rapid
increase in the use of machines powered by inan
imate forms of energy (such as waterfalls, steam
engines powered by coal, or electricity) that
began in England in the later part of the eight
eenth century. There are two perspectives on
the scope of the subject. The IR may be viewed
both as (1) a well defined historical episode,
delimited in time and space, or (2) a much
broader phase of sociocultural evolution that is