conflict (racial/ethnic) 659

SE about a mean that is typically about half the total width of the 95 percent CI for the same data. It is unfortunate that the same gra phic is used with two such different meanings, and every figure showing error bars must state clearly what they represent. In Figure 2 the two 95 percent … Read more conflict (racial/ethnic) 659

658 confidence intervals

Figure 2 Means and 95 percent CIs for two groups of respondents, each tested on four occasions. Group is a between-subjects factor, and the CIs shown may be used to assess a between-groups comparison, such as Group 1 vs. Group 2, at time T1. Time of testing, however, is a repeated measure, and the CIs … Read more 658 confidence intervals

confidence intervals 657

Figure 1 Means and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) for 20 independent samples from a population with mean m 53, showing sample-to-sample variation. The intervals vary in width because each is based on the standard deviation of that sample. In the long run, 95 percent of CIs are expected to include m. Here, two CIs … Read more confidence intervals 657

656 confidence intervals

confidence intervals Geoff Cumming A confidence interval (CI) is an interval estimate of a population parameter. It is a range of values, calculated from data, that is likely to include the true value of the population para meter. When a newspaper reports support for the government is 43 percent, in a poll with an error … Read more 656 confidence intervals

Comte, Auguste (17981857) 655

focus on universal laws of order and change. But if Comte had exceeded the permissible degree of comparison and generalization in social study, it remained unclear what degree of lawful generalizing was possible in social science. A great late nineteenth century German discus sion ensued. That discussion created the aca demic environment in which Georg … Read more Comte, Auguste (17981857) 655

654 Comte, Auguste (17981857)

use of data from diverse societies as if they represented data from a single society at various stages of development is tautological only if his dynamic theory is correct is using data from non western societies to describe features of early periods of European ones justified. Comtes exclusive reliance on European illus trations and period … Read more 654 Comte, Auguste (17981857)

Comte, Auguste (17981857) 653

the use of religious symbolism and organiza tion. A positive society did not imply advanced scientific thinking amongst all its members. For the common individual sentiment dominated intellect. Social harmony required collective symbols and rituals to create a sense of obliga tion and subordination to the collective good. As a transnational entity, the Positivist Church … Read more Comte, Auguste (17981857) 653

652 Comte, Auguste (17981857)

that the world is seen as explicable in terms of human like motivations, fetishism generates lit tle abstract thought to comprehend it and no authoritative priesthood to intercede with greater forces. Accordingly, social progress is slow, technology remains simple, and social organization is marginal with limited coordina tion of collective undertakings. Polytheism replaces fetishism. It … Read more 652 Comte, Auguste (17981857)

Comte, Auguste (17981857) 651

not to be comprehended by a process of intro spective doubt and reflection. Rather, sociol ogy is to be based on empirical observation in order to discover determinate social laws and how these laws can be used to improve social harmony. For Comte, the discovery of such laws constitutes pure sociology; dis covery of how … Read more Comte, Auguste (17981857) 651

650 Comte, Auguste (17981857)

REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READINGS Fielding, N. G. & Lee, R. M. (1998) Computer Ana lysis and Qualitative Research. Sage, London. Mangabeira, W. C., Lee, R. M., & Fielding, N. G. (2004) Computers and Qualitative Research: Adoption, Use, and Representation. Social Science Computer Review 22(2): 167 78. Miles, M. B. & Weitzman, E. A. (1996) The … Read more 650 Comte, Auguste (17981857)