2294 industrial revolution

continuing to this day. In the first approach there is much agreement about the place (England) and time (the late 1700s). The year 1750 can be taken as a reasonable nominal date for the beginning of the IR (Nolan & Lenski 2004), although it might be considered early by some historians. The second approach is … Read more 2294 industrial revolution

industrial revolution 2293

storage, auditing, manipulation, and broadcast of information globally. Through intervention into these communicative spaces visibility is greatly enhanced, allowing for the auditing of the performance of individuals and institutions (Hogan & Greene 2002). The retention of mem ories and traditions that hitherto had so easily been broken or lost is also placed within grasp as … Read more industrial revolution 2293

2292 industrial relations

knowledge than the older tradition of micro empirical inquiry and ethnographic research. The orientation in the new business schools that mushroomed in the US and UK, and to a lesser degree in continental Europe, promoted new vocabularies centered on leadership, self help, and unbridled individualism in pursuit of personal advancement in the organization. Col lective … Read more 2292 industrial relations

industrial relations 2291

industry who are paid to do nothing at all, but throughout British industry there must be hundreds of thousands of workers who are paid to do nothing for a considerable part of their time . . . Then there are the machines and changes in technology many of them in use in other countries which … Read more industrial relations 2291

2290 industrial relations

Chairs at the Universities of Cambridge, Leeds, and Cardiff in the late 1920s to address the concerns of key businesses about achieving a degree of consensus on the shop floor. The incumbents of these Chairs brought pragmatic guidance to the key policymakers involved in employment relations, the practitioners in the expanding industries, and the growing … Read more 2290 industrial relations

industrial relations 2289

In the United States, a new discourse human resource management focusing on the individual rather than collective employment relations captured the research agenda and led practitioners in the field of personnel and indus trial relations to reinvent themselves. The administration led by Ronald Reagan was deeply hostile to the labor movement that had already been … Read more industrial relations 2289

2288 industrial relations

work. The detailed division of labor was entrenched and reinforced in the factories, thus rendering worker solidarity and collective orga nization difficult. But the unbridled authority of bosses eventually came to be challenged. Workers formed embryonic unions and relations between workers and their masters became increasingly fraught. The study of industrial relations took its lead … Read more 2288 industrial relations

industrial relations 2287

testing lay observation which apparently relied upon some form of inductive inference from experience to the observation statements describing that experience. Since this would re raise a variation of Humes problem, deductivism was forced to recognize the unavoidably theory laden and conventional character of observa tion. The traditional logical positivist reliance on the distinction between … Read more industrial relations 2287

individualism 2285

natural liberty and exchange of goods and ser vices in free and competitive markets, with as few interventions by the state as possible, would best support societal development and welfare. A growing political individualism became most influential with the French Revolution and the emphasis on individual rights, referring to the idea of natural justice in … Read more individualism 2285