4958 technological determinism

and between organizations, the spotlight of
research is also exploring how teams can operate
effectively across organizational boundaries
(e.g., joint venture teams) and across networks
to enable people to cooperate on tasks that no
single organization can accomplish.

SEE ALSO: Group Processes; Organizations as
Social Structures; Organizations, Voluntary

REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED
READINGS

Agarwal, R. (2003) Teamwork in the Netcentric Orga-
nization. In: West, M. A., Tjosvold, D., & Smith,
K. G. (Eds.), International Handbook of Organiza
tional Teamwork and Cooperative Working. Wiley,
Chichester, ch. 21.
Applebaum, E. & Batt, R. (1994) The New American
Workplace. ILR Press, Ithaca, NY.
Bion, W. R. (1961) Experiences in Groups and Other
Papers. Basic Books, New York.
Cotton, J. L. (1993) Employee Involvement. Sage,
Newbury Park, CA.
Gladstein, D. (1984) Groups in Context: A Model of
Task Group Effectiveness. Administrative Science
Quarterly 29: 499 517.
Guzzo, R. A. & Shea, G. P. (1992) Group Perfor-
mance and Intergroup Relations in Organizations.
In: Dunnette, M. D. & Hough, L. M. (Eds.),
Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychol
ogy, Vol. 3. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo
Alto, CA, pp. 269 313.
Hackman, J. R. (Ed.) (1990) Groups That Work (and
Those That Dont): Creating Conditions for Effective
Teamwork. Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
Hackman, J. R. (1992) Group Influences on Indivi-
duals in Organizations. In: Dunnette, M. D. &
Hough, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, 2nd edn. Consulting
Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, pp. 199 26.
Hogg, M. & Abrams, D. (1988) Social Identifications:
A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and
Group Processes. Routledge, London.
Korsgaard, M. A., Brodt, S. E., & Sapienza, H. J.
(2003) Trust, Identity, and Attachment: Promot-
ing Individuals Cooperation in Groups. In: West,
M. A., Tjosvold, D., & Smith, K. G. (Eds.), Inter
national Handbook of Organizational Teamwork and
Cooperative Working. Wiley, Chichester, ch. 6.
Macy, B. A. & Izumi, H. (1993) Organizational
Change, Design, and Work Innovation: A Meta-
Analysis of 131 North American Field Studies,
1961 1991. Research in Organizational Change
and Development 7: 235 313.
Milliken, F. J. & Martins, L. L. (1996) Searching
for Common Threads: Understanding the
Multiple Effects of Diversity in Organizational
Groups. Academy of Management Review 21(2):
402 33.
Nemeth, C. & Owens, P. (1996) Making Work
Groups More Effective: The Value of Minority
Dissent. In: West, M. A. (Ed.), Handbook of Work
Group Psychology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 125 42.
Roethlisberger, F. J. & Dickson, W. J. (1939) Man
agement and the Worker. Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, MA.
Tjosvold, D. (1991) Team Organization: An Enduring
Competitive Advantage. Wiley, Chichester.
Turner, J. C. (1987) Rediscovering the Social Group:
A Self Categorization Theory. Blackwell, Oxford.
Watson, W. E., Kumar, K., & Michaelsen, L. K.
(1993) Cultural Diversitys Impact on Interaction
Process and Performance: Comparing Homoge-
neous and Diverse Task Groups. Academy of
Management Journal 36: 590 602.
West, M. A. (1996) Reflexivity and Work Group
Effectiveness: A Conceptual Integration. In: West,
M. A. (Ed.), Handbook of Work Group Psychology.
Wiley, Chichester, pp. 555 79.
West, M. A., Tjosvold, D., & Smith, K. G. (Eds.)
(2003) International Handbook of Organiza
tional Teamwork and Cooperative Working. Wiley,
Chichester.

technological
determinism

Alan Bryman

Technological determinism refers to the thesis
that the path of social change is directly influ
enced by technological developments. As such
the thesis ascribes agency to an inert object,
namely technology, in human affairs and their
development.
It is common to distinguish between hard
and soft versions of the thesis. The hard ver
sion views technology as the sole determinant
of social development, whereas the soft version
depicts it as one among several other factors
and as greatly implicated in the social circum
stances out of which it arises. The soft version
thus moderates the anti determinists dislike of