3022 migration: international

and a wide array of other foreigners who move
to other countries for a few years to carry for
ward the work of the institution that sponsors
them. Most receiving countries welcome insti
tutional migrants and place few restrictions on
their entry.
Whereas political factors are the underlying
cause of refugee migrations and economic factors
drive labor and most institutional migrations,
social factors stimulate family reunification and
lifestyle migrations. Foreigners who move to
another country for refuge or work want their
family members to join them. While most receiv
ing countries in North America and Europe allow
some family reunification, they also have estab
lished rules that limit which immigrants can bring
their family members. For instance, countries
differ in whom they consider an immediate family
member and in the conditions that have to be met
by immigrants before their family members can
rejoin them. Family reunification also includes
international migrations that result from the
marriage of nationals of two different countries.
Typically, one partner moves to the other part
ners homeland. While statistics on interna
tional intermarriage are scarce, census data on
spousal origins indicate that such marriages are
Of the five migrant types, lifestyle migrants
are the smallest category and occur when peo
ple move to another country because they
prefer its climate, cost of living, investment
system, cultural milieu, or other factors. This
category includes retirees who move to another
country seasonally or permanently, migrants
returning to their homelands after living abroad
for decades, and wealthy investors who move to
countries that are tax havens or that offer ame
nities not available in their homeland. Lifestyle
migrations are enabled by the increased volume
of international mobility in the globalization
era, the lack of restrictions on the international
mobility of people of means, and the general
recognition by countries that relatively rich
individuals such as retirees and investors bring
capital that can stimulate their economies.
In order to keep international migration
inflows at acceptable levels to their populaces,
since the early 1900s governments of receiving
countries have increasingly taken steps to con
trol the volume of immigration and types of
migrants. However, the management of immi
gration is complicated in the globalization era
because of increasing flows of capital, raw
materials, goods, and information among coun
tries. In general, countries view short term tra
vel for business and tourism as in their national
interest and adopt policy measures that encou
rage or accommodate institutional migrants,
lifestyle migrants, and foreigners migrating for
family reunification. Some countries also reset
tle modest numbers of refugees. While some
countries allow large numbers of labor migrants
to enter and work, as demand for admission
by labor migrants has risen, debates have started
in many receiving countries about the costs and
benefits of labor migration and the numbers and
means under which labor migrants should be
admitted. Receiving countries face a dilemma,
namely, how to control unauthorized labor
migration while maintaining ready access for
other types of migrants. Concerns over national
security and unauthorized labor migration have
led governments to increase vigilance over their
borders in recent decades.
Countries use different policy modes to reg
ulate the in migration of foreigners. A handful
of countries Australia, Canada, New Zealand,
and the United States grant foreigners the
right to permanent immigration prior to entry.
All other countries, and increasingly the per
manent immigration countries too, issue for
eigners temporary residence and work visas
that permit them to reside and work for a fixed
time period in order to carry out an activity
considered to be in the receiving countrys
political, economic, or social interests. While
the length of the residence period granted by
countries to foreigners admitted on temporary
visas varies, countries generally are willing to
renew these temporary visas and some do so
multiple times or indefinitely. Thus temporary
migration becomes permanent settlement as
social and economic networks between nationals
and foreigners expand, leading to the growth
of a group of persons who might be called
transnationalists. These transnationalists tend
to be frequent international travelers, carry
two passports and maintain dual citizenship,
spend parts of the year in both of their home
lands, and are comfortable living in multina
tional settings.