Some theorists highlight the role of migration
policies and public debates that created fears
about the likelihood of mass migration.
A more recent debate questions how contem
porary racism differs from older concepts.
Influential proponents like Barker (1981) and
Balibar (1990) argue that the growing public
debate about immigration in western countries
and the foundation of such groups calling them
selves, and being called, the new right have
given rise to a new racism. The key issue of this
racism is to claim the uniqueness of every cul
ture and the necessity to preserve difference.
From this position, thinkers of the new right
derive the right of cultural difference and the
argument that the presence of other cultures
in their country will be threatening. Culture
became a prominent marker and has justified
unequal treatment of immigrants. The term
has taken the place of biological arguments.
According to Balibar and other proponents of
the new racism or cultural racism, the term
culture substitutes the older concept of race.
From a postmodern view, the relationship of
racism to other modes of discourse, such as
gender, nation, and class, should be centered
on the question of the overlapping and multi
plying of the above modes. Cultural study the
orists view the notion of race as a contingent
and unstable cultural category. Representatives
of this field also raise the question of how
people construct their identities along various
lines in an increasingly migratory and globa
lized world. An anti essentialist understanding
of racism highlights that racist discourses are
always woven together with other divisions
such as class, gender, and ethnicity.
Migration, ethnic conflicts, and racism are
multidimensional social phenomena. There is
no simple model to explain their relationship
in all its complexity. More research is needed
to clarify their interplay on different levels such
as everyday ideology production, modern insti
tutions, nation state, and global change. While
several studies deal with labor migrants, the
living conditions of other groups, such as asy
lum seekers and undocumented migrants, are
undertheorized. Further, future research should
ask in which ways racism and ethnic conflicts
emerge from global change. Racism and ethnic
conflicts should not only be interpreted as a
reaction to a deterritorialized and globalized
world; it is essential to see also how such phe
nomena will be fostered by opportunities such as
worldwide communication and traveling created
by the process of globalization.
SEE ALSO: Ethnic Cleansing; Ethnic
Enclaves; Ethnic Groups; Ethnicity; Globaliza
tion; Hate Crimes; Migration: Internal; Migra
tion: International; Nation State; Race; Race
and Ethnic Politics; Race (Racism); Scientific
Racism; Social Integration and Inclusion;
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED
Balibar, E. (1990) Gibt es einen Neorassismus? In:
Balibar, E. & Wallerstein, I. (Eds.) Rasse, Klasse,
Nation. Ambivalente Identitaten, Hamburg/
Barker, M. (1981) The New Racism: Conservatives
and the Ideology of the Tribe. Junctions Books,
Bonacich, E. (1972) A Theory of Ethnic Antagonism:
The Split Labor Market. American Sociological
Review 37: 547 59.
Castles, S. & Miller, M. J. (1993) The Age of Migra
tion: International Population Movements in the
Modern World. Macmillan, London.
Hall, S. (1989) Rassismus als ideologischer Diskurs.
Das Argument 178: S913 21.
Hirschfeld, M. (1938) Racism. Victor Gollancz,
Park, R. E. (1950) Race and Culture: Essays in the
Sociology of Contemporary Man. Free Press, Glen-
Ravenstein, E. G. (1885) The Laws of Migration.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 48: 167 227.
Ravenstein, E. G. (1889) The Laws of Migration.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 52: 241 301.
Kyle Crowder and Matthew Hall
In general, internal migration refers to the
movement of individuals or populations within
a social system. More specifically, following the
United Nations definition, internal migration is