are willing to labor in jobs characterized by the
3 Ds (i.e., that are dirty, demanding, and dan
gerous) or the 3 Ks in Japanese) (kitanai,
kitsui, and kiken). Parasite singles (young per
sons in their late twenties and in their thirties
who have not left home and continue to enjoy
free accommodation at their parents expense
while working for good wages, as described in
Yamada 1999) are less prone to seek privileged
employment at all costs, and the number of
furitaa (freelance casuals) has increased signifi
cantly over the 1990s. Widespread questioning
of gender derived segmentation has opened up
the work place to greater competition. These
changes only add to doubts about the unique
ness of JSM (nihonteki kei ei), and in this sense
JSM (nihon ni okeru kei ei) will continue to be
characterized by change and be difficult to
capture in its entirety as managers use Japanese
structural elements to respond to the spread of
global standards. While the workers will con
tinue to be guided by a strong sense of self
interest, the spread of multicultural thinking is
likely to encourage variety in those responses.
Over time new vocabularies for describing JSM
are bound to emerge as perceptions and reali
ties change, and as different conditions of pos
sibility come to shape the environment in
which work is performed in Japan.
SEE ALSO: Enterprise Unions; LaborMan
agement Relations; Management; Nenko Chin
gin; Nihonjinron; Shushin Koyo
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED
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Hazama, H. (1963) Nihonteki kei ei no keifu (The
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Noritsu Kyokai, Tokyo.
Hazama, H. (1971) Nihonteki kei ei ( Japanese-Style
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Iwata, R. (1977) Nihonteki kei ei no hensei genri (The
Formative Principles of Japanese-Style Manage-
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Kumazawa, M. (1994) Shinhen Nihon no rodosha zo
(An Updated Portrait of the Japanese Worker).
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Kumazawa, M. (1997) Noryokushugi to kigyo shakai
(The Commitment to Ability and the Enterprise-
Centered Society). Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo.
Mouer, R. & Kawanishi, H. (2004) A Sociology
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Nakayama, I. (1974) Industrialization and Labor
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Ogishima, K. (1984) Japanese Style Management: A
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Organization of Economic Cooperation and Devel-
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Sato, T. (2000) Fubyodo shakai Nihon Sayonara
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to the Mass Middle-Class Society). Chuo Koron
Tsuda, M. (1977) Nihonteki kei ei no ronri (The
Logic of Japanese-Style Mangement). Chuo Kei-
Yamada, M. (1999) Parasaito Shinguru no Jidai (The
Age of the Parasite Singles). Chikuma Shobo,
Rodney Stark and Laurence Iannaccone (1997)
noted that, despite their millions of members,
until recently Jehovahs Witnesses failed to
attract the attention of most sociologists of reli
gion (Beckford 1975 is one of the rare book
length studies). The difficult access to their
international archives was a factor, together
with a general underevaluation of non mainline
Christian groups by certain sociologists. In the
1990s and 2000s, however, the situation chan
ged. Sociologists became interested in testing
on such a large group hypotheses about the
relative success of different religious move
ments, cognitive dissonance, routinization of
charisma, and mainstreaming of once marginal
religions, while a new Witnesses leadership was
ready to cooperate.
The Jehovahs Witnesses are the largest
among a group of several religious movements
that claim the heritage of Pastor Charles Taze
Russell (18521916). Born in Pittsburgh, Penn
sylvania, Russell became involved in theological