2418 invasion succession

Marriage; Same Sex Marriage/Civil Unions;
Second Demographic Transition


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Barrett A. Lee

Invasion succession (hereafter IS) has enjoyed
considerable popularity among social scientists
as a framework for understanding community
change. In its simplest form, IS refers to the
replacement of one population group or land
use by another within a particular geographical
environment. Due to mounting awareness of
the complexities surrounding the process of
change, however, the IS model no longer occu
pies the status of conventional wisdom that it
did throughout much of the last century.
The historical roots of IS can be traced to
the work of sociologists at the University of
Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s. Borrowing
ideas from plant and animal ecology, Park
(1952), McKenzie (1968), and their colleagues
stressed unfettered competition for valued
resources (such as a desirable location or hous
ing) as the driving force behind IS. Competition
was believed to spur a natural, orderly, and
irreversible transition from an equilibrium
stage dominated by the incumbent group to a
new equilibrium dominated by the invading
group. According to the Chicago sociologists,
the notion of passage through a sequence of
stages could be helpful for depicting social
change along multiple dimensions demo
graphic, cultural, economic and across settings
ranging from the local to the global.
Despite the Chicago Schools broad view, the
scope of IS has narrowed substantially over sub
sequent decades of empirical usage. Well before