Marriage; Same Sex Marriage/Civil Unions;
Second Demographic Transition
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED
Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Taylor, L.
(2000) Demographics of the Gay and Lesbian
Population in the United States: Evidence from
Available Systematic Data Sources. Demography
37: 139 54.
Bramlett, M. D. & Mosher, W. D. (2002) Cohabita-
tion, Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage in the
United States. National Center for Health Statis-
tics, Vital Health Statistics 23(22). Online. www.
Casper, L. M. & Bianchi, S. M. (2002) Continuity
and Change in the American Family. Sage, Thou-
sand Oaks, CA.
Kalmijn, M. (1998) Intermarriage and Homogamy:
Causes, Patterns, Trends. Annual Review of Sociol
ogy 24: 395 421.
Oppenheimer, V. K. (1988) A Theory of Marriage
Timing. American Journal of Sociology 94: 563 91.
Oppenheimer, V. K. (1997) Womens Employment
and the Gain to Marriage: The Specialization and
Trading Model. Annual Review of Sociology 23:
Parsons, T. (1964 [1949, 1954]) The Kinship System
of the Contemporary United States. In: Essays in
Sociological Theory. Free Press, Glencoe, IL.
Raley, R. K. & Bumpass, L. (2003) The Topography
of the Divorce Plateau: Levels and Trends in
Union Stability in the United States after 1980.
Demographic Research 8: 246 59.
Schoenmaeckers, R. C. & Lodewijckx, E. (1999)
Demographic Behavior in Europe: Some Results
from FFS Country Reports and Suggestions for
Further Research. European Journal of Population
15: 207 40.
Seltzer, J. A. (2004) Cohabitation and Family
Change. In: Coleman, M. & Ganong, L. H.
(Eds.), Handbook of Contemporary families: Consid
ering the Past, Contemplating the Future. Sage,
Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 57 78.
Sweeney, M. M. & Cancian, M. (2004) The Chan-
ging Importance of White Womens Economic
Prospects for Assortative Mating. Journal of Mar
riage and Family 66: 1015 28.
Thornton, A. & Young-DeMarco, L. (2001) Four
Decades of Trends in Attitudes Toward Family
Issues in the United States: The 1960s through the
1990s. Journal of Marriage and Family 63: 1009 37.
US Bureau of the Census (2004) Estimated Median
Age at First Marriage by Sex, 1890 Present.
Waite, L. J., Bachrach, C., Hindin, M., Thomson,
E., & Thornton, A. (Eds.) (2000) The Ties That
Bind: Perspectives on Marriage and Cohabitation.
Aldine de Gruyter, Hawthorne, NY.
Weiss, Y. (1997) The Formation and Dissolution of
Families: Why Marry? Who Marries Whom? And
What Happens Upon Divorce. In: Rosenzweig,
M. R. & Stark, O. (Eds.), Handbook of Population
and Family Economics, Vol. 1a. Elsevier, Amster-
dam, pp. 81 123.
Barrett A. Lee
Invasion succession (hereafter IS) has enjoyed
considerable popularity among social scientists
as a framework for understanding community
change. In its simplest form, IS refers to the
replacement of one population group or land
use by another within a particular geographical
environment. Due to mounting awareness of
the complexities surrounding the process of
change, however, the IS model no longer occu
pies the status of conventional wisdom that it
did throughout much of the last century.
The historical roots of IS can be traced to
the work of sociologists at the University of
Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s. Borrowing
ideas from plant and animal ecology, Park
(1952), McKenzie (1968), and their colleagues
stressed unfettered competition for valued
resources (such as a desirable location or hous
ing) as the driving force behind IS. Competition
was believed to spur a natural, orderly, and
irreversible transition from an equilibrium
stage dominated by the incumbent group to a
new equilibrium dominated by the invading
group. According to the Chicago sociologists,
the notion of passage through a sequence of
stages could be helpful for depicting social
change along multiple dimensions demo
graphic, cultural, economic and across settings
ranging from the local to the global.
Despite the Chicago Schools broad view, the
scope of IS has narrowed substantially over sub
sequent decades of empirical usage. Well before