The cumulation of results of studies of an
interventions effects and the analysis of this
assembly of studies are important to science,
of course. Systematic reviews of intervention
studies of effect have developed remarkably
since the 1990s. The scientific rubrics for devel
opment in this area include meta analysis and
systematic reviews, each of which emphasizes
the quality of the evidence. The QUOROM
Group in health research standards reports on
meta analyses of randomized trials (Moher et al.
1999). As yet, analogous guidelines have not yet
been developed for the educational, social wel
fare, and criminological areas.
Beginning in 1993 the international Cochrane
Collaboration (www.cochrane.org.) in health has
led the way in generating uniform, systematic,
high quality reviews of assemblies of studies on
effectiveness of interventions. The international
Campbell Collaboration (www.campbellcolla
boration.org.), Cochranes younger sibling,
focuses on social welfare, crime and justice,
and education. The Cochrane Collaboration
has produced over 1,500 systematic reviews
since 1993. The topics range from effectiveness
of psychosocial development interventions such
as multi systemic therapy, to summarizing
efforts to manage colitis, heart disease, and other
illness. Both the Cochrane Collaboration and the
Campbell Collaboration have developed world
wide accessible registers of randomized trials. In
this respect, the organizations compile informa
tion that addresses a variation on questions of
the third kind in the context of intervention
studies What works? Or works better? based
on fair evidence.
SEE ALSO: Effect Sizes; Evaluation; Experi
ment; Experimental Methods; Prevention, Inter
vention; Structural Equation Modeling; Survey
Research; Theory; Variables, Independent
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