These controversies have heightened identity
politics both within Native groups and between
Native groups and the general population.
While American Indian gaming might be
viewed negatively by some non Indians, Amer
ican Indian religions and traditions (real or ima
gined) have attracted many non Indians. Some
religions welcome, and indeed, seek to convert
others and expand their membership. This gen
erally is not the case with Native American
spiritual leaders and practitioners. Non Indian
appropriation of Indian spiritual traditions often
is perceived by native people as theft one in a
long series of Indian giving by non Indians.
The presence of charlatans and hucksters (a few
of whom are of native ancestry) involved in
assorted new age appropriations of Indian
cultural elements lifted from their indigenous
context has heightened the controversy
The spread of new age and world music
that uses elements and occasionally performers
from various indigenous populations has
spawned analogous controversies at a global
level (Feld 1991). Not the least of the subcon
troversies is that it is non Indian performers and
producers who are making the large profits from
the use of indigenous instruments, themes,
music, and performances. Such controversies
will not disappear quickly. They have, however,
generated a new interest in relations with indi
genous peoples and new attempts to reexamine
the long, and often tawdry, history of Indian/
non Indian relations.
SEE ALSO: Decolonization; Ethnography;
Indigenous Movements; Polyethnicity; Primi
tive Religion; Tribalism
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED
Bays, B. A. & Fouberg, E. H. (Eds.) (2002) The
Tribes and the States: Geographies of Intergovern
mental Interaction. Rowman & Littlefield, Lan-
Bodley, J. H. (1994) Cultural Anthropology: Tribes,
States, and the Global System. Mayfield, Mountain
Bodley, J. H. (2003) Power of Scale: A Global History
Approach. M. E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY.
Brooks, J. F. (2002) Captives and Cousins: Slavery,
Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Border
lands. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel
Chase-Dunn, C. & Hall, T. D. (1997) Rise and
Demise: Comparing World Systems. Westview
Press, Boulder, CO.
Churchill, W. (1996) Spiritual Hucksterism: The
Rise of the Plastic Medicine Men. In: Churchill,
W. (Ed.), From A Native Son: Selected Essays on
Indigenism, 1985 1995. South End Press, Boston,
pp. 355 65.
Cornell, S. (1988) The Return of the Native: American
Indian Political Resurgence. Oxford University
Press, New York.
Cornell, S. & Kalt, J. (1992) What Can Tribes Do?
Strategies and Institutions in American Indian Eco
nomic Development. American Indian Studies Cen-
ter, University of California, Los Angeles.
Cornell, S. & Kalt, J. (2005) Constitutions, Culture,
and the Wealth of Nations: Economic Development
on American Indian Reservations. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press.
Dippie, B. W. (1982) The Vanishing American: White
Attitudes and US Indian Policy. University Press of
Feld, S. (1991) Voices of the Rainforest. Public Cul
ture 4, 1 (Fall): 131 40.
Fenelon, J. V. & Defender-Wilson, M. L. (2004)
Voyage of Domination, Purchase as Conaues, Ska-
kawea for Savagery: Distorted Icons from Misre-
presentation of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.
Wicazo sa Review 19(1): 85 104.
Ferguson, R. B. & Whitehead, N. L. (Eds.) (1992)
War in the Tribal Zone: Expanding States and Indi
genous Warfare. School of American Research
Press, Santa Fe, NM.
Gedicks, A. (2001) Resource Rebels: Native Challenges
to Mining and Oil Corporations. South End Press,
Hall, T. D. & Fenelon, J. V. (2004) The Futures of
Indigenous Peoples: 9 11 and the Trajectory of
Indigenous Survival and Resistance. Journal of
World Systems Research 10(1): 153 97.
Jorgensen, J. G. (1998) Gaming and Recent Amer-
ican Indian Economic Development. American
Indian Culture and Research Journal 22(3): 157 72.
Meyer, M. L. (1994) The White Earth Tragedy: Eth
nicity and Dispossession at a Minnesota Anishinaabe
Reservation, 1889 1920. University Press of
Nagel, J. (1996) American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Red
Power and the Resurgence of Identity and Culture.
Oxford University Press, New York.
Napoli, M. (2002) Native Wellness for the New
Millennium: The Impact of Gaming. Journal of
Sociology and Social Welfare 29(1): 17 25.