1608 family migration

Nevertheless, some recent studies disrupt
the tied migrant thesis, and have demons
trated that geographical contingencies (e.g.,
labor market opportunities, childcare support,
public transportation) have a major impact
on post migration labor market status of male
and female partners. For example, Cooke and
Bailey (1996) show that long distance migration
can have a positive effect on female labor
market status in some contexts within the US.
It is contended that this positive effect is tied to
family migrants moving into economic growth
areas. Importantly, this interpretation overlaps
with other migration studies which have exam
ined links between rising female occupational
status and movement into specific locations,
such as Fieldings (1992) conceptualization of
London and the southeast of England as an
escalator region. In essence, these studies
beg questions of the wider geographic perti
nence of the tied migrant thesis.
Overall, the shifting treatment of family
migration since the early 1990s has stimulated
a vibrant interdisciplinary research agenda,
with scholars now posing a broader range of
research questions to investigate the diversity
of family migration. This includes a richer
appreciation of the influence of sociospatial
contingencies on processes and outcomes of
family migration. Tied to this is a growing
interest with the ways in which family forma
tions, ethnicity, race, age, life course, sexuality,
class, and culture cross cut with different
expressions of family migration. Another useful
entry point for future research is the inclusion
of other types of family structure, such as lone
parent, single adult, multi person, and same
sex couples within analyses of family migration,
and the need to transcend the considerable
focus on heterosexual nuclear families.
SEE ALSO: Immigrant Families; Migration:
International; Migration and the Labor Force

REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED
READINGS

Bailey, A. J. & Boyle, P. J. (2004) Untying and
Retying Family Migration in the New Europe.
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 30: 229 41.

Bailey, A. J., Blake, M., & Cooke, T. J. (2004)
Migration, Care, and Linked Lives of Dual-Earner
Households. Environment and Planning A 36:
1617 32.
Bonney, N., McCleary, A., & Forster, E. (1999)
Migration, Marriage and the Life Course: Com-
mitment and Residential Mobility. In: Boyle, P. J.
& Halfacree, K. H. (Eds.), Migration and Gender
in the Developed World. Routledge, London,
pp. 136 50.
Boyle, P. J., Cooke, T., Halfacree, K. H., & Smith,
D. P. (2002) A Cross-National Study of the
Effects of Family Migration and Womens Labour
Market Status: Some Difficulties with Integrating
Microdata from Two Censuses. Journal of the
Royal Statistical Society A 165: 465 80.
Cooke, T. J. (2001) Trailing Wife or Trailing
Mother? The Effect of Parental Status on the
Relationship Between Family Migration and the
Labor-Market Participation of Married Women.
Environment and Planning A 33: 419 30.
Cooke, T. J. & Bailey, A. J. (1996) Family Migration
and the Employment of Married Women and
Men. Economic Geography 72: 38 48.
Fielding, A. J. (1992) Migration and Social Mobility:
Southeast England as an Escalator Region.
Regional Studies 26: 1 15.
Green, A. E. (1997) A Question of Compromise?
Case Study Evidence on the Location and Mobi-
lity Strategies of Dual Career Households. Regio
nal Studies 31: 641 57.
Halfacree, K. H. (1995) Household Migration
and the Structuration of Patriarchy: Evidence
from the USA. Progress in Human Geography 19:
159 82.
Halfacree, K. H. (2001) Constructing the Object:
Taxonomic Practices, Counterurbanization
and Positioning Marginal Rural Settlement. Inter
national Journal of Population Geography 7:
395 411.
Hardill, I., Green, A. E., Dudleston, A. C., & Owen,
D. W. (1997) Who Decides What? Decision Mak-
ing in Dual Career Households. Work, Employment
and Society 22: 313 26.
Kofman, E. (2004) Family-Related Migration: A Cri-
tical Review of European Studies. Journal of Eth
nic and Migration Studies 30: 243 62.
Smith, D. P. (2004) An Untied Research Agenda
for Family Migration: Loosening the Shackles
of the Past. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
30: 263 82.
Smith, D. P. & Bailey, A. J. (2006) International
Family Migration and Differential Labour Mar-
ket Participation: Is There a Gender Gap in
Great Britain? Environment and Planning A.